URCLIMGeoresources

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This page is UNDER CONSTRUCTION. You may contribute as you wish. It lists Georesources of potential interest to URCLIM based on expressed requirements. The header are proposed based on the requirements expressed on the infolab (URCLIMInfoRequirements). Sometimes a given resource can fall into several categories.

Taxonomies, Vocabularies

Important resources for URCLIM are the concepts used to talk and manage the searched and retrieved resources. These can be the concepts of direct interest (eg : how do we talk about vegetation and building, how do databases represent them). These can be concepts of less direct interest yet needed to manage uncertainty (eg : how to specify dates in datasets, how to describe provenance, ..).

Fine-grained classification taxonomies

URCLIM is requiring fine grained input data. A review of existing fine-grained classification taxonomies can be found in the following URCLIM deliverable : document. As the most prominent ones, one can mention the taxonomies proposed by (Herold04) and (Heiden07), as well as the one used in Mapuce project. In URCLIM, a synthesis one was proposed ClassifTaxonomies and experimentations are on-going to study the possibility to produce it automatically out of remote sensing data.

Specific initiatives for LULC

  • there may exist national or local taxonomies specifically adapted to a given area which will generally come with a given production procedure :
    • National : OCS-GE in France, depicted below in the data section
    • Local : MOS in area Ile de France (Greater Paris), depicated below in the data section
  • thematic initiatives : the Local Climate Zone taxonomy is adapted to the domain of climate modelling

GEMET

Example of a concept definition in GEMET
  • https://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/themes/
  • for information content, general, multilingual, structured (broader, narrower), some alignments with other resources like Wikipedia, good query interface.
  • de facto standard for authoritative data bases related to environment and in INSPIRE
  • relevance for URCLIM : completeness
  • to be checked : is the level of detail adapted wrt vegetation and buildings ?

OpenStreetMap tags

Wikidata

Snapshot of Wikidata def for Land Use
  • https://www.wikidata.org/
  • for information content and maybe more, general and open -also includes journals, scientific papers- , multilingual, structured, collaborative
  • relevance for URCLIM :
  • to be checked : the consistency management

DCAT : describing datasets on the Web

PROV-O (W3C)

Land cover

Land Cover is the physical state of the land surface. It is the combination of vegetation, soil, rock, water and human-made structures, which make up the earth's landscape. The land cover is the interface between the earth's crust and the atmosphere, influencing the exchange of energy and matter in the climatic system and biogeochemical cycles. http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept/4612

Ecoclimap

Surfex

Urban Atlas

The Urban Atlas is providing pan-European comparable land use and land cover data for Functional Urban Areas (FUA). The Urban Atlas is a joint initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry with the support of the European Space Agency and the European Environment Agency.

Urban Atlas database has been produced over the most important European urban areas and their neighbourhood. Its minimum mapping unit varies from 0.25 to 1 ha, depending on classes. Urban Atlas follows a LULC hierarchical taxonomy. Urban areas as artificial surfaces are described by classes to different urban densities and uses/functions. At the most detailed taxonomy level, these classes are

  • Continuous urban fabric
  • Discontinuous urban fabric
    • 50-60%
    • 30-50%
    • 10-30%
    • 0-10%
  • Isolated structures
  • Industrial commercial, public, military and private unites
  • Road and rail network and associated land
    • Fast transit roads and associated land
    • Other roads ans associated land
    • Railways and associated land
  • Port areas
  • Airports
  • Mineral extraction and dump sites
  • Construction sites
  • Land without current use
  • Green urban areas
  • Sport and leisure facilities


Its most recent versions are accompanied by rough Street Tree Layer map.

Corine Land Cover

  • Corine land cover: Corine land cover is a land cover land use database produced over 39 European countries.

5 millesimes have been produced: 1990, 2000, 2006, 2012 and 2018. Its minimal mapping unit is 25 ha and is thus too coarse for urban studies.

Copernicus High Resolution Layers (HRL)

Pan-European High Resolution Layers (HRL) provide information on specific land cover characteristics, and are complementary to land cover / land use mapping such as in the CORINE land cover (CLC) datasets. The HRLs are produced from satellite imagery through a combination of automatic processing and interactive rule based classification. Since the production of the 2015 reference year the production is increasingly based on time series of satellite images from a number of different sensors, including the combination of optical and radar data. The main source are the Sentinel Satellites (in particular Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-1). In addition to high resolution (HR) data, very high resolution (VHR) imagery is also used for some of the products since 2015.
Five themes have been identified so far, corresponding with the main themes from CLC, i.e. the level of sealed soil (imperviousness), tree cover density and forest type, grasslands, wetness and water, and small woody features. Two out of these five products are continuing existing products (Imperviousness and forest), two products are new baseline products that fully replace previous 2012 products (grassland, and the now combined wetness and water products), and one product is completely new (small woody features).

National products

Land use

Urban Atlas

The Urban Atlas is providing pan-European comparable land use and land cover data for Functional Urban Areas (FUA). The Urban Atlas is a joint initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Regional and Urban Policy and the Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry with the support of the European Space Agency and the European Environment Agency.

see section above, Land Cover, for more details on Urban Atlas datasets

Mixed LC - LU

Some products mixe land cover and land use

OCS GE : in some part of France

This is a product which specifications are adapted to the whole France and which is produced on demand. It is on an open licence (licence ouverte Etalab). Its is produced on specific areas and time slots depending on the demand and of production capacities : Midi-Pyrénées 2013, Languedoc Roussillon 2015, Pays de la Loire 2013 et 2016, Ardèche 2014, Morbihan 2013, Corse 2016, Communauté d’agglo du niortais 2002-2014, Nice Côte d’Azur (coming soon), Basse-Normandie (coming soon), Bourgogne Franche Comté at two time slots (2017/2018 et 2010/2011), La Réunion 2017 It is available on Toulouse but so far not on Paris. There are on-going experimentations at IGN to produce it automatically thanks to Deep Learning methods.

MOS on Paris

This product is specific to Paris region and comes with nine millesimes between 1982 and 2017. https://www.institutparisregion.fr/mode-doccupation-du-sol-mos.html to download the data : https://data-iau-idf.opendata.arcgis.com/search?q=mos

(Building) height information

Vegetation information

  • Vegetation layers of Copernicus HRL, but they don't contain much information in urban areas

Imagery

Image datasets can be used to extract land cover or land use information

French BD Ortho

Potential software

Geoclimate

GeoClimate chain open source software that can be used to derive high resolution urban land use land cover indicators as defined in URCLIM out of topographical and statistical data from different possible sources preferably open data, with a European target

MapuceTools

MapuceTools has been replaced by Geoclimate, open source software that could be used to derive high resolution urban land use land cover indicators as defined in MAPUCE project out of authoritative topographical and statistical data in France

MicMac

MicMac Micmac is an open source software that can be used to generate DEM

iTowns

ITowns (http://www.itowns-project.org/) is an open source software that can be used for rendering different data in particular 3D data in an immersive mode and through the Web. The platform has capacities useful to climate services. Specific documentation and how to will be produced in the context of URCLIM to facilitate the usage of iTowns platform in the development of demonstrators.

  • ITowns4ClimateServices: more detailed description of how to use iTowns in the context of the design of a climate service